Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Uganda – update (29 October 2012)

Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Uganda – update (29 October 2012)

31 October 2012 - As of 29 October 2012, a total of 19 cases and 9 deaths have been reported from 5 districts namely Kabale district, in south-western Uganda, Kampala (the capital city), Ibanda, Mbarara and Kabarole. The case fatality rate is 47.4%. The outbreak was declared by the Ministry of Health in Uganda on 19 October 2012. One of the 9 deaths reported is a health worker.

Currently, 13 patients have been admitted to hospital (2 in Kampala, 8 in Kabale, 3 in Ibanda) and their contacts are listed for daily follow up. The latest confirmed case was admitted to Ibanda district isolation ward on 26 October 2012.
Blood samples from 9 cases have been confirmed for Marburg virus at the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI). 

The World Health Organization (WHO) and international partners including, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Uganda Red Cross (URCS), African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) and Médecins-Sans-Frontières (MSF) are supporting the national authorities in outbreak investigation and response.  The national task force has identified additional health care workers and epidemiologists to strengthen the teams in the field. Training of health workers on infection prevention and control, surveillance and clinical case management is ongoing.  Social mobilization is ongoing including the dissemination of IEC (Information Education Communication) material, sensitization on Marburg preventions and control and broadcast of information through radio channels. The first shipment of personal protective equipment (PPE) provided by WHO arrived over the weekend. 

The WHO Regional office has deployed an epidemiologist and a logistician to Uganda to support the response teams on the ground. In addition, a social mobilization expert from WHO Zambia Country Office and a logistician from the Regional Rapid Response Team network have been mobilized for immediate deployment. More experts are being identified by the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN). 

As the investigation into the outbreak continues, WHO and partners continue to support the national authorities as needed in the areas of coordination, infection prevention and control, surveillance, epidemiology, public information and social mobilization, anthropological analysis and logistics for outbreak response.

Neighbouring countries have been contacted to strengthen cross border surveillance and preparedness to prevent cross border spread of the outbreak. 

WHO advises that there is no need for any restrictions on travel or trade with Uganda.

For more information

India-25 teams culling and disposing of birds

TNN | Oct 30, 2012, 04.20AM IST
BANGALORE: Ten teams are involved insurveillance work in the 10-km-wide affected zone around the Central Poultry Development Organization (CPDO) at Hesaraghatta. "Twenty-five rapid response teams are involved in the culling and disposal of the birds on the CPDO farm," says Aravind Jannu, principal secretary, animal husbandry department.
A school on the CDPO premises has been closed for 15 days, the official said.
Last week, an action plan was activated in the CPDO farm and its vicinity after tests confirmed that 3,481 turkeys had died of avian flu in the institute. About 800 turkeys were later culled.
An alert was sounded in 68 villages within 10 km of Hesaraghatta. About 1.5 lakh poultry birds are housed in the commercial and private farms in these villages.
The forest department has been alerted about the situation and directed to take up surveillance of stray, wild and migratory birds.

India-Culling begins, State government bans movement of poultry

..Surveillance work
Six teams, involved in the surveillance work, collected 175 samples in the surveillance zone on Tuesday. No unnatural deaths of birds were noticed in the surveillance zone or in any part of the State, a department communiqué said.
Mr. Jannu said the source of the outbreak was yet to be ascertained, and currently the Government was working towards containing the spread of the flu.
On the ban of poultry movement from Karnataka to Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, he said: “The commercial aspect of the ban can be dealt with later. We don’t want the virus to cross into the civilian areas, which can cause much more damage than the current ban by neighbouring States.”..

No human case
Health Department sources said no case of H5N1 among humans had been reported in the State so far. “While workers in the CPDO were being screened on a daily basis, villagers in the surveillance zone are being screened regularly,” an official said..

Egypt-Veterinary Bank": the declaration of a state of "emergency" to combat bird flu

Sources Directorate Medicine Veterinary province Western declare a state of emergency and begin launching campaigns veterinary various farms poultry , fearing the spread or discover spots pandemic flu birds after the emergence of foci in the provinces face nautical neighboring province. ordered Dr. Wafik star Prime Directorate Medicine Veterinary Gharbiya forming teams of veterinary services in conjunction with local units to take samples from birds farms for analysis to make sure they are free of the disease in anticipation of the emergence of foci of infected avian influenza. comes these procedures result of the emergence of hotbeds infected in some neighboring provinces and the death of the amount of chicken in one farm Governorate Dakahlia and also the emergence of foci of many one centers province Menoufia and Dakahlia and Kfraheik causing the deaths of 
thousands of birds heads.

India-Ground zero cooped up in worry

TNN | Oct 31, 2012, 04.57AM IST
An ostrich peeps out of the fencing around theCentral Poultry Development Organization(CPDO) in Hesaraghatta every time it hears humans approaching. 

The lone flightless bird, described by CPDO staff as human friendly, is now apparently longing for human company as most staffers keep try to keep away from it, given the raging bird flu scare in the area. 

The ostrich is a rare survivor of its kind on the 500-acre CPDO campus that has been reduced to a graveyard of domesticated birds. It has not been culled given its healthy status, staff said. Thousands of other turkeys, chickens, emus and ducks on the campus were not as lucky and have been culled already, while a few remaining are only waiting for their turn to be killed. 

The CPDO has even barred most its staff from entering the enclosures where these birds had once been housed. Only those taking part in the culling operations are seen in these pockets and that too in protective suits and masks. On Tuesday, these masked men in astronaut-like suits were seen carrying huge lumps of white plastic like material which were then dumped in four pits. 

"These pits are 20 feet deep, 12 feet long and three feet wide. We shall cover these pits by evening," one masked man told TOI. 

According to the masked men, they have culled almost all flu-hit birds and are in the process of sterilizing the sheds. "Anti virus liquids, mostly containing potassium permanganate, are being sprayed all over the place," they said. 

Meanwhile, two staff members came out of a unit and were seen washing their legs with potassium permanganate. 

To prevent the bird flu virus from spreading, small bowl like concrete ponds have been put up in front of every cage. "All those who enter have to dip their feet in these bowls that are filled with potassium permanganate. Even vehicles have to rinse and wash their tyres in these ponds before moving ahead," an employee said. 

15-day-old flu? 

A CPDO staffer told TOI that the bird flu was first discovered at the campus in mid-October. "Initially, it did not spread to other birds. Before we could realize, it was all over the place," he said. 

No poultry movement 

The deputy commissioner of Bangalore Urban district has banned marketing and movement of all poultry and poultry products to and from the surveillance zone declared in areas within 10 km of the Central Poultry Development Organization (CPDO), Hesaraghatta. The ban will remain in place till November 15. 

About 1.5 lakh poultry birds are said to be housed in hundreds of commercial and private farmsin 63 villages situated in the surveillance zone around Hesaraghatta. 

The surveillance zone has been declared as part of an action plan to prevent the spread of bird flu after an outbreak of avian influenza was announced on CPDO campus last week. 

"Till Tuesday, 19,154 chickens have been culled and disposed of as per the guidelines" said an official release. 
According to the release, 81 chickens, 13,673 ducks and 369 emu birds are yet to be culled and the same would be done at the earliest. Fifty-two sheds of birds too will be sterilized soon, it said. 

Six teams involved in surveillance work have collected 175 samples and sent the same for investigation. No unusual death of birds was noticed in the surveillance zone or in any part of the state on Tuesday.

India-Bird Flu struck two months ago, claim villagers

Flu struck two months ago, claim villagers

Bangalore, Oct 30, 2012, DHNS:
The avian flu incidence at the Central Poultry Development Organisation (CPDO) at Hesaraghatta could have occurred at least four to five weeks before authorities first reported it, according to villagers. 

However, the cause for the highly pathogenic avian Influenza at Hesaraghatta near here is still unidentified.

A few poultry farmers around Hesaraghatta say that they had lost their birds to the flu much earlier than it was officially reported. A poultry unit at Tammarasanahalli, Hesaraghatta hobli, near the CPDO farms, had reported bird deaths. 

Hanumantappa, owner of a farm, told Deccan Herald that at least 300 birds that he and his friends had reared died of the flu two months ago. “When our birds became sick, we consulted a government vet. He visited the place once, but was indifferent to our alerts. We lost all the birds,” he said. 

The villagers said the doctor blamed them for not taking care of their birds well. “That discouraged us from pursuing the matter,” he said. 

“We came to know just two days before the outbreak of the epidemic was reported on news channels. Immediately, the CPDO asked us to alert the villagers,” said Govinda Raju, a panchayat member. 

Aravind Jannu, Principal Secretary, department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, refuted the claim of the villagers. But he promised to look into the matter. He also said that over 19,000 chicken were on Tuesday culled at the CPDO. “As many as 19,154 chicken (out of 19,235 chicken) at CPDO have been culled and disposed of,” he said.

Kerala ban
Following detection of avian influenza in Karnataka, Kerala has banned movement of poultry from both Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Marburg Research Institute Set Up in Uganda

The government together with Centre for Disease Control (CDC), have set up a temporary virus research institute at Ibanda and a diagnostic laboratory at Kabale Referral Hospital in an effort to reduce the delays and help contain the Marburg cases identified.
Photo: New Vision
Marburg medical team.

Uganda: Marburg More Serious Than HIV/Aids - Director


Addressing a press conference yesterday at media centre Dr. Acheng Jane Ruth, the director general health services made the statement after journalists demanded for the names and pictures of patients at Mulago hospital to illustrate how bad the situation was.
In frustration Acheng said that if she did that it would be against professional ethics and it would make rehabilitating these people back in society hard since people will be running a way from them.
This came into play when Acheng was asked to clarify about one officer Dr. Sheila Ndyanabangi, the head of the Mental Health Unit Division, who is said to be under isolated observation as one journalist claimed to have called her and she told him she was in office.
To that Acheng said Ndyanabangi is not infected with Marburg but got in contact with one of the patients and has not shown any symptoms.
She warned journalists to stop writing that Ndyanabangi is a Marburg patient because that has stigmatized her. And for the case of her being in office, Acheng said that Ndyanabangi had gone to complain about reports that were published by red pepper that she is indeed infected with Marburg.
Acheng emphasized that although 436 contacts have been put under close observation, only 12 have been admitted as patients with the Marburg disease. She explained that being admitted and being closely observed are totally two different things.
Being observed is when you have been in contact with victims and being admitted is when results show that you have developed antibodies against the virus (Marburg).
On that note Acheng said that HIV/AIDS kills you slowly while Marburg just runs you through the last minutes of your life

Ban meetings in districts with Marburg – MPs

Publish Date: Oct 31, 2012
Ban meetings in districts with Marburg – MPs
Marburg medical team in Rushoroza health centre isolation ward in Kabale district 

MPs want public celebrations, meetings and gatherings suspended in marburg-affected districts.

“There is going to be the 50th independence anniversary celebration in Mbarara on November 2. Such gatherings should be suspended until these places are declared marburg-free,” Dr. Medard Bitekyerezo, the Mbarara municipality MP, appealed yesterday

He was responding to a statement by health minister Dr. Christine Ondoa on the status of marburg outbreak in the districts of Kabale, Mbarara, Ibanda and Kabarole.

Ondoa reaffirmed the Government’s efforts to avoid the spread. “We are going to suspend public gatherings and meetings in places of the outbreaks. Uganda is an epidemic-prone country and disease outbreaks are frequent and more funds and personnel are needed for this division,” she said.

Stephen Tashobya, the Kajara County MP, asked the ministry to pay risk allowances to health workers managing the marburg outbreak.

Another person dies of Marburg # 8 Eighteen health workers under quarantine

Another person dies of Marburg

Tuesday, October 30  2012 at  02:00
A 45-year-old man is said to have died of Marburg virus at Ibanda Hospital yesterday. The deceased was identified as Vincent Mushabe from the same district. He was from Ibanda Health Clinic where he received initial treatment.
Dr George Upenytho, the executive director Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, said: “I have been with Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF) doctors from Kabale.”
“They have told me that another person has died of Marburg at Ibanda Hospital, it is a confirmed case,” he added.
Medical workers at Ibanda hospital said they have another suspected case.
The victim is a is a 19-year-old woman. Eighteen health workers have also been put under quarantine. Meanwhile, the Ministry of Health yesterday announced plans to set up committees in charge of burial ceremonies in the three districts affected by the Marburg outbreak.

Fair Flu Viruses Closely Matched

A study finds that the genomes of swine and human flu viruses associated with a county fair in Ohio are almost perfectly matched, suggesting interspecies transmission.
By  | October 30, 2012
Strains of the influenza A virus found in pigs at an Ohio county fair are almost genetically identical to the version found in human fair goers, according to a report out last week (October 25) in Emerging Microbes and Infections. The findings suggest that there are little or no biological barriers to transmission between pigs and humans.
In September, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed 107 human cases of H3N2v influenza in Ohio since July 2012. The majority occurred in young people involved at agricultural fairs, where flu-infected pigs with no obvious symptoms are exhibited. Most of the human illnesses were mild, but one infected person, who had a compromised immune system, died.
To confirm that the pigs and humans were infected with the same virus, researchers at Ohio State University sequenced the genomes of H3N2 viruses recovered from pigs exhibited at fairs and from several visitors who were infected with the human variant. They found that the genomes were more than 99 percent identical.
"This study presents clear molecular evidence that pigs and humans were concurrently infected with the same strain of influenza A virus at an Ohio county fair in July 2012," the authors wrote. “The lack of difference between the genotypes of these isolates suggests that there are virtually no innate species barriers preventing bidirectional interspecies transmission of [the] viruses between humans and pigs.”
(Hat tip to CIDRAP)

India outbreak -The Avian influenza story so far

  •  Wednesday, Oct 31, 2012, 16:11 IST 

  • Centre on October 25 confirmed the outbreak of bird flu among turkeys at turkey unit of CPDOTI
  • Announced death of 3,481 turkeys and culling of 784 other turkeys to check disease spread
  • 86 chicken and 17 ducks died on October 27, suspectedly due to avian influenza
  • Another 120 chicken died on Sunday, forcing officials to send samples to HSADL, Bhopal, for tests to check for avian influenza
  • Results of samples come back positive' for avian influenza among chickens, ducks and emus at CPDOTI.
  • Animal husbandry department decides to cull 19,235 chicken, 13,673 ducks and 369 emus affected by the flu
  • A total of 31 rapid response teams in place for culling and disposal of dead birds to check disease spread
  • Depart extends sanitised zone up to 1-km radius around CPDOTI where all birds are to be culled
  • 175 samples from birds in the 10-km zone with ban on chicken sale imposed, have been collected for tests for flu
  • Residents within 1-km zone have been provided Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) tablets to be taken one every day for a week
  • Bangalore Urban DC extends ban on marketing and movement of poultry/poultry products up to November 15
  • Despite the increasing number of birds affected by the flu, no human cases of avian influenza have so far been reported

Avian Flu H5N1 Outbreak in Bhutan

29 October 2012
BHUTAN - An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has been reported to the OIE.
The outbreak was reported by Dr Karma Dukpa, Director General, Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests in Thimpu, Bhutan.

The outbreak occurred in Rinchending, Phuentsholing in Chhukha.

Backyard free-ranging local chickens at Rinchending village were affected in the outbreak, which started on 2 October. The affected village is located beside the Thimphu-Phuentsholing highway, about 5km from Phuentsholing town. In total, there were 24 cases, all 24 birds died as a result. There are 496 susceptible birds.

The cause of the outbreak is believed to be due to the introduction of new live animals or the illegal movement of animals.

Vietnam-Low effective bird flu vaccine for the new strain of C

(VOV) - From now until the end of bird flu in the North will continue complexity.
The afternoon of 30/10, in Hanoi, the National Steering Committee to prevent avian influenza to discuss preventive measures.  Veterinary Department (MARD) said the country only two provinces of Quang Ngai and Dien Bien flu appears less than 21 days. Blue ear epidemic continues to spread in the key areas of pig production: Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Thai Binh, Long An, Dak Lak, Quang Nam, the number of pigs died 3200 in total more than 6,000 children disease. The reason is that farmers also subjectively prevention, the local not drastically curb the cross-border smuggling.

Avian influenza virus strain is mainly group A and C, circulating in the northern provinces. There DAH epidemiological mapping and disclosure of H5N1 avian influenza virus strains circulating in the field and the effect of the avian influenza vaccine to the local initiative and control. Xuan Thanh Dam Deputy Director of Animal Health said: Particularly in the northern provinces, the bird flu vaccine for the new strain of C detection, the efficiency is very low.
 In this week's advisory group will report to the Department offered to buy Re6 vaccine, this vaccine is not a project that is a vaccine for the prevention of the epidemic will have the vaccine to vaccination. Through testing the vaccine in accordance with chickens, ducks and other avian influenza viruses circulating in Vietnam.

Speaking at the meeting, Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Diep Kinh Tan noted avian influenza virus is circulating in the local high-risk outbreak last year, asked the members of the Board direct urgently reviewing the number of bird flu vaccine for timely addition to the local epidemic prevention institutions.
 Deputy Minister Diep Kinh Tan said: "From now until the end of bird flu in the north will further complexity, the most important thing now is to assign specific responsibilities of the veterinary better. propose to repeat the veterinary team. For the blue ear disease to be done drastically, if we do not public service does not support the destruction, the farmers selling firm will stand as it will spread ".

Bird flu reappears in Ha Tinh

Wednesday, 31.10.2012, 00:11 (GMT +7)
(SGGP). Tran Hung, Deputy Sub-Department of Animal Health, Ha Tinh province has said that the outbreak of bird flu has appeared in the area Binh Law, Cam Binh, Cam Xuyen and agencies decided to carry out the destruction of more than 2,000 ducks.

Earlier, in households Mr. Nguyen Viet Since in rural Binh Law phenomenon of hundreds of birds suddenly stop eating then ill die-off. The samples are sent out Animal Health Agency Region III to test and positive for avian influenza virus A/H5N1. From mid-July to the beginning of the month 10-2012 bird flu outbreak broke play and terrible raging in Cam Xuyen district, Thach Ha States United Kingdom, Can Loc, Ha Tinh makes over 50,000 poultry (chicken, duck) and infectious diseases sick to death be destroyed.

Avian flu: When a scientist’s warnings and suggestions went totally unheard

Published: Wednesday, Oct 31, 2012, 16:18 IST 
In 2006, the bird flu scare was all around although no incidences of bird flu were reported anywhere around Bangalore. But now, despite thousands of birds dying due to the avian influenza at the Central Poultry Development Organisation & Training Institute (CPDOTI) in Hesaraghatta, authorities are yet to take cognisance of an expert’s advice given through an editorial in Current Science six years ago.
While the occurrence of the dreaded H5N1 avian influenza has been confirmed at the CPDOTI at Hesaraghatta, near the city, the state government might not have the necessary know-how or the facilities to tackle it effectively, warns Prof R Uma Shaanker, a crop physiologist from the University of Agricultural Sciences who had, as early as 2006, advised the state government to place contingency plans to tackle the disease through a guest editorial on the scientific journal, Current Science.
For one, the very suddenness with which the avian influenza took the authorities by surprise showed that forecasting the disease had completely failed, he said.
There needs to be a good monitoring and forecasting system in place by the government, said Shaanker. The forecasting programme can be built on any number of epidemiological models that are available.
However, Shaanker’s editorial in Current Science had failed to attract the attention of the state government in being prepared for the worse-case scenarios. He lamented the lack of manpower to “undertake epidemiological studies” (studies pertaining to effect of a certain disease on a population and its spread trends), which are necessary for forecasting disease outbreaks and spreads.
“I am afraid that right now the government does not have any such programme in place,” he said. Although he told DNA on Tuesday — six years after the article appeared — that the warning applies even more now than ever before, the civic and health machinery in Bangalore has not budged an inch, leaving all the work to the state department of animal husbandry to primarily restrict disease spread from birds in the epicentre zone outwards.
“The forecasting programme with avian flu is very different from weather forecasting because you won’t be able to forecast when there will be a disease strike. But once there is bird flu occurrence, you can forecast the probability of neighbouring areas that are likely to be affected by this and how and in what conditions it might spread around. That will give the government a good handle to follow up on the outbreak. Better to prevent it rather than wait for it to affect other areas as well,” he said.
Sadly, when DNA spoke to the authorities on Monday, it was clear none of them within Bangalore city were prepared for this. Devaki Umesh, health commissioner, BBMP denied that the issue (bird flu outbreak) came under the BBMP as it had occurred outside its jurisdiction. “The state health department is supposed to look into the matter. It does not come under the BBMP,” she had said.
And Dr Dhanya Kumar, director, state department of health and family welfare, said, “As per the guidelines of government of India, the animal husbandry department is supposed to take care of it.” The animal husbandry department is indeed taking all precautions to restrict the disease within the 10-km radial zone around CPDOTI, and has also began culling birds within 1-km radius of the disease-struck institute.
“But there there needs to robust and current data so the government can mitigate action with immediacy and accordingly make decisions but I am afraid that does not exist right now,” Shaanker said.
He also touched upon the probability of disease spread among the human population, saying that if people are afflicted by the disease, their sustenance has to be ensured. “What sort of insurance systems can be put in place? How are these systems implementable? The last time there was an outbreak of bird flu there were no such contingencies in place,” he said.
Shaanker also suggested that the state government should put in place a buffer mechanism to cushion the blow for poultry farmers suffering losses due to culling. Just as in the case of crop failures wherein insurances are made available, private insurance can be taken out for poultry farmers and the government should be proactively involved in buffering the loss.
“I maintain what I had mentioned in Current Science about the lack of preparedness at the government’s end to tackle the recurrence of diseases such as bird flu or even swine flu,” he said. 

India: Fresh bird flu outbreak in Bangalore

31 October 2012 Last updated at 06:58 ET
Authorities in India's Bangalore city have culled about 30,000 birds after an outbreak of bird flu was confirmed.
The order came after tests showed that turkeys at a government poultry farm had died of the virulent H5N1 strain.
Birds, including turkeys and emus, have been killed so far to prevent the bird flu from spreading in the city, which is India's info-tech hub.
The culling operations will continue for the next few days, officials said.
The virus was first detected at the government-run poultry department at Hessarghatta on the outskirts of the city.
"Measures are in place to control and contain the avian influenza," a senior official said.
A ban has also been imposed on the sale of poultry products in and around the affected farm.
The bird flu scare has drastically brought down the price of chicken in the southern city, worrying local traders.
More than 150,000 birds are reared in this poultry belt, which covers 68 villages.
The reason for the outbreak is being investigated, with officials not ruling out migratory birds carrying the flu.

Schmallenberg Virus found in Irish cattle

First case of rare virus found in Irish cattle

Wednesday October 31 2012
A RARE cattle and sheep virus has spread to an Irish herd from Europe.
The Department of Agriculture confirmed that a case of Schmallenberg Virus has been found in a cattle foetus in a Cork herd.
It is the first time the virus has ever been found here.
Vets are hopeful that the outbreak can be contained given the short infectious cycle of the virus and the fact that cold, frosty weather prevents its spread by limiting insect activity.
There is no evidence, to date, of the virus being spread directly from animal to animal except from pregnant cows and ewes to their offspring.
If a pregnant animal contracts the virus, they either abort the foetus or else give birth to partially developed or deformed calves and lambs.
The department is now investigating the source of the infection in Cork amid suspicions it may have a UK link.
The major concern is that the virus -- if it spreads -- could threaten Ireland's main lambing season in February with over three million lambs set to be born over 10 weeks.
The discovery came despite a major awareness campaign to keep Ireland free from the virus which has been sweeping through European cattle and sheep stocks.
A total of 10 EU countries have confirmed cases of Schmallenberg Virus since early 2011 -- with the UK particularly badly hit over recent months.
Last spring, Agriculture Minister Simon Coveney ordered a series of precautionary tests throughout Ireland -- with 48 samples all proving negative.
The Department of Agriculture urged all livestock owners to be vigilant about the disease -- and said the primary impact is on cattle and sheep in the early stages of pregnancy.
However, department vets will continue to sample for the disease amid hopes that the virus can be contained through normal methods.

Avian influenza viruses are changing pandemic threat

(AFP) - At the International Scientific Conference on the causes and management of severe influenzawhich took place in Hanoi from 29/10- 31/10, scientists say concern about a flu pandemic can occur due to avian influenza virus changes.

According to the scientists, at present, the emergence of the H5N1 flu outbreak in poultry and the ability of the recombinant virus to other strains may occur will form strains have the ability to spread from person to people more quickly.

Deputy Minister of Health Nguyen Thi Xuyen saidappearing in the last eight yearsthe H5N1 flu is still a threat of a pandemicFrom 2003 to now, Vietnam has recorded 123 cases of H5N1 flu (the third world), including 61 deathsAnd in Vietnamafter a year of bird flu does not appearin the year 2012 has recorded two cases of bird fluincluding one case of death.

So far the H5N1 virus is highly pathogenic virusthe mortality rate ofnearly 50%, with time up to 70- 80%. The virus often changesquicklythe disease likely to die from respiratory failuremultiple organfailure.


Ministry of health hires 10 foreign experts to handle Marburg outbreak

Ministry of Health and its partners have hired ten technical experts to handle and contain the spread of Marburg cases in the identified districts.
The ministry of health says the death toll of both the probable and confirmed cases stands at eight, with the latest being a case that died at the isolation facility at Rushoroza Health Centre III on October 27.
The Minister Dr Christine Ondoa clarified that since the onset of the outbreak, her ministry has collected a total of 45 samples of which nine were confirmed positive; five in Kabale, two in Kampala and two from Ibanda.

She says that working closely with the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), whereby the ministry has set up a field diagnostic laboratory at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital. “All samples from the affected neighbouring districts will hence be taken to this laboratory for quick diagnostics. This will shorten the time when we get results to three hours from the original 24 hours due to distance. Further serological testing will be undertaken at the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI),” Ondoa said.

Dr Ondoa says due to the presence of cases in other districts, the ministry of health has established temporary isolation facilities to accommodate the suspected and confirmed cases. In Ibanda, a temporary isolation ward has been created at Ibanda Hospital, while plans are underway to set up a proper isolation facility by tomorrow.
She says at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, a separate temporary has been designated for he suspect Marburg cases. A triage has also been set up at the causality ward.
We have assembled a team of experts to work in the newly established isolation facilities and they are expected in these districts today.  We also plan to undertake infection control procedures in these facilities as safety measures for the workers and the admitted patients.

Dr Ondoa says there are seven suspect cases (student nurses) quarantined at Ibanda. These cases attended to the confirmed case that later died at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital on October 24. Other health workers who attended to the patient are closely being monitored.

Dr Ondoa dispelled rumours that, “Dr. Sheila Ndyanabangi, the head of the Mental Health Unit Division, had contracted Marburg and had been isolated. Dr. Ndyanabangi has not been isolated but has been advised to exercise social distancing. She is one of the contacts who are being monitored. She has not developed any signs or symptoms of the disease and therefore cannot be isolated from the community. She is due to complete the 21 days of observation.”